Allergens

Substances which are typically harmless for the majority of people, but in some individuals can produce allergic reactions of a varying nature (asthma, hives, etc.). An allergic person can come into contact with allergens in many ways, and the body responds accordingly: if the allergen has been breathed in then there will probably be respiratory symptoms, if it has been touched it will respond with skin inflammation. Allergens are contained in mixtures of synthetic perfumes and in essential oils.

Aloe Vera

Made up of phytosterols, vitamins, dietary elements and amino acids, it has a hydrating, softening and emollient action on the skin. It also has anti-fungal and antibacterial properties. Rich in mucopolysaccharides, Aloe forms a protective film on the skin, allowing it to perform its known moisturizing function.

Alpha bisabolol

A natural alcohol primarily containing chamomile essential oil which has sweetening, calming, softening and anti-reddening properties. It is tolerated well by the skin; therefore it is used widely in specific compounds for sensitive skin and mucosae.

Arginine

A basic amino acid, comprising the NMF (Natural Moisturizing Factor) of the skin with hydrating properties. It is used to regulate pH and as a neutralizing agent in products created for highly sensitive skins.

Cleansing by affinity

Means to draw out impurities with natural oils instead of harsh ingredients or harmful lather. This method of cleansing safeguards and nourishes the hydrolipid film that protects the delicate skin around the vagina. This keeps you feeling comfortable, confident – and sexy all day long.

Cocamidopropyl betaine

A natural amphoteric surfactant obtained from coconut oil. It gives the detergent an excellent balance between its cleaning action and delicateness on the skin; ideal for cleansing intimate mucosae and soft, sensitive and sensitized skin.

Dyspareunia

Vaginal pain during intercourse. The condition can be congenital o acquired. Symptoms can easily occur after menopause.

Estrogen

A variety of hormonal chemical compounds produced by the ovaries, influencing the growth and health of female reproductive organs. They are active in many cells throughout the body by interacting with estrogen receptors. The three main naturally occurring estrogens in women are estradiol, estrone, and estriol. Estrogen levels fall after menopause. Several types of estrogen therapies are available for menopause indications. Also available in some contraceptives, but at much higher doses than those used for menopause treatment. See also Estrogen therapy (ET).

Feminine dryness

Vaginal dryness is a condition which can appear throughout life, but in particular it occurs in the period after menopause. It can be accompanied by irritating symptoms such as itching, burning, slight incontinence and pain during sex.
Hormonal changes, the menstrual cycle and aging influence secretion of the natural lubricant of the vagina. There are many causes of vaginal dryness: lower levels of estrogen due to menopause, pregnancy, breastfeeding, cigarette smoke, immune disorders, various drugs and frequent and unnecessary vaginal washing.

Feminine hygiene

The term feminine hygiene refers to all advice which applies to cleansing intimate areas correctly, with the aim of preserving the integrity of skin and mucosae, preventing genital infections and maintaining health. Feminine hygiene requires delicate washing with specific products which protect and do not aggravate the sensitivity of female genitals, and maintain the physiological pH.

Glycerin

Due to the hydrating, lubricating and soothing benefits it provides to the skin, glycerin is the most frequently used wetting agent in cosmetology and is well tolerated by the skin.

Hormone

Specifically, a sex hormone (such as estrogen, progesterone, testosterone) produced by the ovaries (in women), testes (in men), or adrenal gland (in both women and men) that affects the growth or function of the reproductive organs or the development of secondary sex characteristics. Can also be used as medications when made in a laboratory to be identical to what the body makes, or somewhat different but with similar effects. Also includes non-sex hormones such as thyroid hormone.

Hyaluronic Acid

A natural substance which is a fundamental component of the connective tissues of the skin. It acts as a resistor and maintains the shape of tissues. It has a significant capacity to draw in and bind water molecules, therefore promoting hydration and stimulating the formation of collagen. In gel form on the skin/mucosa, it acts as a water reserve and protects against external stress.

Hydrolipid film

Film with an acid pH which covers the skin. Made up of: NMF + hydrophobic lipid components. It has many functions, including maintaining the hydration of the stratum corneum, regulating the evaporation of water and protecting against the actions of pathogenic microorganisms.

Jojoba oil

Derived from pressing the seeds of the jojoba plant which is a highly woody shrub widespread in Central America. It is not a fatty oil but a liquid wax, as it does not contain glycerin and is therefore highly stable in topical formulas. Thanks to its special composition, it can be absorbed very well by the epidermis, to the point that it can be defined as sebotropic; it has been shown to be very effective as a conditioning, emollient and restorative agent.

Lecithin

A mixture of vegetable phospholipids (soya, wheat), with good hydrating properties for the skin, which reduces desquamation and helps restore skin elasticity.

Malva (Malva sylvestris)

Contains a large quantity of hydrating, emollient and anti-reddening substances; used in cosmetics in the formulation of products for dry, sensitive skin irritated by environmental agents.

Menopause

From the Greek “men” (month) and “pausis” (end), it therefore indicates a woman’s last menstruation by definition. Clinically the menopause forms part of a long period called the climacteric phase, which begins a few years before the final menstrual cycle (naturally this period varies from woman to woman), featuring alterations and changes in the woman’s body, starting with the termination of the activity of the ovaries and therefore fertility with progressive conclusion of the production of female hormones. This alters a balance which the woman has had for all of her fertile age, causing disorders and malaise and influencing numerous vital processes relating to the skin, genital organs, bones, brain, heart, nervous system and fat metabolism.

NMF (Natural Moisturizing Factor)

Natural hydrating factor in the stratum corneum. It is made up of a mixture of hydrophilic substances (urea, amino acids, sugars and salts). It is a hygroscopic layer, i.e. capable of bonding to and retaining water, ensuring correct skin hydration.

Olive oil

With a composition which is very similar to sebum, it is known for its emollient function, playing an important role in skin tropism and stimulating the processes for repairing the epidermis and dermis.

Petroleum derivatives irritating to the skin and mucosae

Petrolatum, paraffinum liquidum, isoparaffin, Vaseline, mineral oil are all ingredients derived from petroleum which are extremely polluting and irritating and are often found in products used daily (creams, hydrating oils, cocoa butter, cleansing milk etc.). They are so widely used in production that they have replaced natural (equally effective) ingredients, for two fundamental reasons: 1. They are much more economical than natural ingredients and consequently their use makes the production cheaper and generates higher profits. 2. They are water repellent, and their hydrating power apparently consists in forming an unnatural barrier between the skin and the surrounding environment (so that it is not dehydrating), ensuring that the skin appears moist externally and dry below. As this barrier is not recognized by the body, the skin is prevented from transpiring naturally and germs remain unaffected below, leading to irritations of the epidermis.

Physiological pH

pH is a unit of measurement which can define the acidity or alkalinity of a liquid. The pH scale goes from 0 to 14, indicating acidity, neutrality or alkalinity. Physiological pH is the normal value that the body’s fluids should have; in fact, they must be maintained within physiological values to preserve our body’s health. The level of physiological acidity varies depending on the area of the body (intimate mucosae values between 4 and 5; values of skin tissues between 5.5 and 6.5; scalp between 4 and 6).

Reduced libido

Also called inhibited sexual desire; a decrease of interest in sexual activity.

Skin cleansing and mucosae

Removal of the impurities deposited on the skin surface leaving it intact and in the best condition to carry out its defensive functions.

SLS, SLES

Sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium laureth sulfate are harsh anionic synthetic surfactants which can be harmful to the skin and more precisely the follicle. They remove too much fat from the skin, mucosae and the hair, thereby removing all the natural defenses. Sebum, sweat and hydrating factors removed as a result can no longer protect the skin and mucosae, which become more permeable to foreign bodies, starting with the surfactant itself which penetrates and causes further damage. One of the more harmful aspects of these sulfate or sulfonate surfactants discovered recently is their toxicity to enzymes. In fact, the skin has numerous enzymatic activities which are helpful to life and physiological skin processes. The action of detergents blocks them and causes long-term significant alterations. The first and most evident effect is excessive dryness of the skin or lifeless hair.

Stratum corneum

The surface “horny” layer of the epidermis made up of flattened cells called corneocytes, which gradually migrate towards the upper layers and die off. The following form these layers: ceramides, fatty acids and esterified cholesterol.

Surfactants

Detergent substances which lower the surface tension of the skin area to be cleaned, making the skin more wettable and thereby facilitating the cleansing.

They are classified as:
• Anionic surfactants – detergent substances which develop a negative charge in solutions and have an elevated cleansing power often at the expense of the hydrolipid film, making it very harsh (synthetic sulfate and sulfonate derivatives SLES, SLS; soaps, predominant in terms of quantity in detergents)
• Cationic surfactants – detergent substances which develop a positive charge in solution.
They have a low detergent and foaming activity, so their use is limited in cosmetic, conditioning (softeners and hair balsams) and antimicrobial products. (Quaternary ammonium salts)
• Non-ionic surfactants – detergent substances which do not have a charge in solution. These include detergents considered less harsh and more valid for correct skin cleansing.
• Amphoteric surfactants – detergent substances able to take on a positive or negative charge in solution according to its pH. They have a good foaming/detergent action and an excellent skin affinity.
They are used primarily as detergents for delicate skin, infants and feminine hygiene. Among the most well-known are alkyl betaines.

Sweet almond oil (Prunus amygdalus dulcis)

Oil extracted from almond seeds; rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, it is also tolerated well by more delicate and sensitive skin, used widely for its skin-nourishing, emollient and elasticizing properties.

Vaginal atrophy

A condition in which estrogen loss causes tissues of the vulva (the external parts of the female genital organs) and the lining of the vagina to become thin, dry, and less elastic. Vaginal secretions diminish, resulting in decreased lubrication.

Vaginal dryness

Inadequate lubrication of the vagina that can be caused by low estrogen levels, medication, or lack of sexual arousal.

Vaginal lubricant

Nonprescription, water-based products that can be applied to the vagina to decrease friction and reduce discomfort during intercourse.

Vaginal moisturizer

Nonprescription products similar to vaginal lubricants, but offering longer duration of effect by replenishing and maintaining water content in the vagina, often preferred by women who have symptoms of irritation, itching, and burning that are not limited to intercourse. Vaginal moisturizers also help to keep a healthy pH (level of acidity) in the vagina, helping to guard against infection (but not sexually transmitted infections).

Vitamin C (ascorbyl palmitate)

Plays a fundamental biological role in controlling the formation of skin structure of proteins (collagen and elastin). Strong antioxidant and regenerates Vitamin E.

Vitamin E acetate (tocopheryl acetate)

Protective factor against oxidization of the cell membranes; performs a fundamental role in promoting regenerative processes in damaged tissues and creating a protective film on the skin which reduces water loss.

Vulva

The external parts of the female genitalia (lips or labia) around the opening of the vagina.

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